ICVL 2021

The phenomenon of cybernetics


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"The History of Cybernetics Must Be Revised!" Dr. Ștefan Odobleja (1902-1978), creator of generalized cybernetics, post-mortem member of the Romanian Academy

"Cybernetics was born in Romania (1938)" Ștefan Odobleja, 1978

Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach concerned with regulatory and purposive systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities. The core concept of the discipline is circular causality or feedback—that is, where the outcomes of actions are taken as inputs for further action. Cybernetics is concerned with such processes however they are embodied, including in ecological, technological, biological, cognitive, and social systems, and in the context of practical activities such as designing, learning, managing, and conversation.

Cybernetics has been defined in a variety of ways, reflecting "the richness of its conceptual base". One of the most well known definitions is that of Norbert Wiener who characterised cybernetics as concerned with "control and communication in the animal and the machine". The word 'cybernétique' was also used in 1834 by the physicist André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836) to denote the sciences of government in his classification system of human knowledge.

Ştefan Odobleja was a Romanian scientist considered to be one of the precursors of cybernetics. His major work, Psychologie consonantiste (first published in 1938 and 1939, in Paris) helped generated many of the major themes of cybernetics regarding cybernetics and systems thinking nine years before Norbert Wiener.

Cybernetics has its origins in the intersection of numerous fields during the 1940s, including anthropology, mathematics, neuroscience, psychology, and engineering. Initial developments were consolidated through meetings such as the Macy Conferences and the Ratio Club. At its most prominent during the 1950s and 1960s, cybernetics is a precursor to fields such as computing, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, complexity science, and robotics amongst others. It is closely related to systems science, which was developed in parallel.

The 9 universal laws formulated by Dr. Ștefan Odobleja in 1938, before N. Wiener (1948), W. Rose Asley (1951), A. Ducrocq (1965), P. Postelnicu (1945), Jose Blasco Llopis (1977):

  1. The law of equivalence
  2. The law of equilibrium
  3. The law of compensation
  4. The law of reaction
  5. The law of oscillation
  6. Law of reversibility (reverse connection / feedback)
  7. The law of inertia
  8. Law of consonance (resonance)
  9. Law of transformation (evolution)

REF. (in romanian), https://odobleja.ro/despre/9-legi-ale-lui-odobleja/

"Consonantal Psychology was Cybernetics" Ștefan Odobleja, 1978

"Consonantal psychology is, through its conceptual content, the first cybernetics in the universal scientific literature." Ștefan Odobleja, 1978

REF. (in romanian), https://odobleja.ro/2021/07/20/fenomenul-ciberneticii-si-descifrarea-apa...

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DEFINITION. A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other. Examples of complex systems are Earth's global climate, organisms, the human brain, infrastructure such as power grid, transportation or communication systems, social and economic organizations (like cities), an ecosystem, a living cell, and ultimately the entire universe.

225px-Complex_systems_organizational_map

Source - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complex_system