ICVL 2020

ROINFO project "Romanian Informatics" - Conclusions



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ROMANIAN ACADEMY

Romanian Committee for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
- History of Science Division -

Marin Vlada (coord.), ROINFO project "Romanian Informatics", https://sites.google.com/view/roinfo/


CONCLUSIONS I - The phenomenon of Romanian informatics

Stages in the emergence and development of Romanian informatics

1. RESEARCH ON RECURSIVE FUNCTIONS, LOGIC AND THEORY OF DEMONSTRATION - In 1927, the Romanian mathematician Gabriel Sudan (1899-1977), with his doctorate at David Hilbert, gave the first example of a recursive function that is not primitive recursive, before Wilhelm Ackermann ( 1928). Between 1934-1942, at the University of Iași, the mathematician Grigore C. Moisil (1906-1973) dealt with "Logic and the theory of demonstration" and aiming to "learn mathematics from the beginning", he studied at the "wonderful library" of the Mathematical Seminar in Iași, the book by Hilbert and Ackermann, but also the 3 volumes “Principia Mathematica” by Russel and Whitehead. Professor Moisil learned about Lukasiewicz's multi-valued logics in the spring of 1935, when T. Kotarbinski, a professor at the University of Warsaw, gave 3 public lectures and a short lecture at the Mathematical Seminar on Lukasiewicz's writing without parentheses. .
2. CYBERNETICS WAS BORN IN ROMANIA (1938-1939) - Today it is known that, 10 years before the book of the American mathematician Norbert Wiener (1894-1964) “Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine”, the Romanian Dr Ștefan Odobleja (1902-1978) - military doctor (post-mortem member of the Romanian Academy, 1990), publishes in 2 volumes "Consonantist Psychology", 1938-1939, at the "Maloine" Publishing House, Paris, in French (totaling over 800 pages), in which he establishes general laws, which he applies to both the sciences of inert nature and the sciences of the living world, psychology and economic and social phenomena. Dr. Ştefan Odobleja makes a description of the psychological functions using a general scheme of a cybernetic system, where the sense organs, which receive information from the environment, represent the inputs (INPUT), and the muscles are considered the outputs (OUTPUT). He takes "steps across the boundaries of psychology" moving from man to other complex systems (communities, social organizations, etc.), inventing a new science: Cybernetics.
3. FUNDAMENTALS OF MODELS FOR COMPUTING AND DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTING - During 1953-1954, ROMANIA ranked third in the world, after the USA and the USSR, in the research activity on "Theory of switching circuits" - after no. of articles (Gr. C. Moisil, CCUB Activity, AMC magazine, Technical Publishing House, no. 13-14, 1970). For these results acad. Gigore C. Moisl received - in 1996, Computer Pioneer Award (IEEE - Computer Society). Programs followed for the national computer and management system, regarding the endowment with computer technology in the period 1971-1980 (1967, 1971, 1972).
4. REALIZATION OF ROMANIAN COMPUTERS - In the period 1955-1957, ROMANIA designed and built its first digital electronic computer (1957, CIFA 1 computer), by a team led by Victor Toma, at the Institute of Atomic Physics (IFA ) - Magurele Bucharest. After 1970 followed the construction of Romanian electronic computers FELIX C series at the ICE Felix Electronic Computers Factory based on licenses purchased from the Dutch company FRIDEN and CII, a French private company created in 1966, within the French government project Plan Calcul, in the time of Charles de Gaulle.
5. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTERS IN THE WORLD - ROMANIA was the eighth country in the world to design and build an electronic computer with electronic tubes (1957) - the CIFA 1 computer in Bucharest and the 11th country in world, which built an electronic computer with transistors and electronic tubes (1963) - the computer DACICC-1 (Automatic Computing Device of the Cluj Computing Institute) at the Computing Institute - Romanian Academy (Cluj-Napoca branch), today called the Computing Institute of “Tiberiu Popoviciu”(ICTP).

CONCLUSIONS II - Cybernetics was born in Romania (1938-1939)

Stages in the international recognition of the work of the scientist Ștefan Odobleja, the inventor of cybernetics
1. „DEMONSTRATION DE PHONOSCOPIE”, year 1937, Dr. Ștefan Odobleja presents a scientific paper at the IXth International Congress of Military Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest. The paper is received with great interest by Dr. W.S. Bairbridge, head of the American delegation. On this occasion, Dr. Ștefan Odobleja distributed to the participants in the Congress a leaflet in French announcing the publication of the paper: "Consonantist Psychology" (1938-1939). Coincidentally or not, the two American military doctors (Dr. Wiliam Seman Bainbridge - chief physician of the 7th American Fleet in the Mediterranean, and Dr. Rosenblueth), later - after 1940, were included in the research team of the American mathematician. Norbert Wiener - today, considered the father of cybernetics.
2. "CONSONANTIST PSYCHOLOGY", PERIOD 1938-1939 - Dr. Ștefan Odobleja (1902-1978), publishes in 2 volumes "Consonantist Psychology", 1938 and 1939, at the Publishing House "Maloine", Paris, in French, totaling over 800 of pages), in which he establishes general laws, which he applies both to the sciences of inert nature and to the sciences of the living world, psychology and economic and social phenomena. "Consonantal psychology has revealed the importance of dual, binary and dichotomous mechanisms both in psychology and beyond, in all sciences. He suggested and applied as another essential for the mechanization of thought, along with circularity. Instead of logic based on 3, he proposed and sketched a logic based on 2. " says Dr. Stefan Odobleja. Thus, he came to define the 9 universal laws, among them being the law of reversibility / vicious circle, feedback. The 2 volumes represent the concepts and studies for a new science: Cybernetics.
3. 1972 - Since 1972, when Ștefan Odobleja read the autobiography of the mathematician Norbert Wiener, he devoted himself to demonstrating the idea that the origin of cybernetics lies in psychology and that "Cybernetics was born in Romania in 1938" through his work in 2 volumes "Consonantist Psychology" from 1938-1939. In this sense, in order to mark his partnership, he published a special work, which appeared in the very year of his death: "Consonantal and cybernetic psychology", with a substantial preface by Mihai Golu: Ștefan Odobleja, Consonantal and cybernetic psychology , Scrisul Românesc Publishing House, Craiova, 1978.
4. “CYBERNETCS AND CONSONANTAL PSYCHOLOGY”, YEAR 1975 - Scientific communication at The Third International Congress of Cybernetics and Systems, Bucharest, Romania, August 25-29, 1975 (ASE Bucharest). The paper appeared in Proceedings of Congres (editors J. Rose-UJ and C Bilciu-Romania), Vol. II, section 5 (Communications, Education and Informatics), SPRINGER-VERLAG Berlin, Heidelberg, New York. The author presents the connection between the basic concepts of cybernetics and the ideas presented in detail in the volume "Consonantal Psychology", Paris, 1938-1939. Consonantal psychology views the brain as a thinking machine; it proceeds to the analysis of thinking in a mechanical, modern way and separates distinctly the two primordial categories (psychological and dynamic question). Thus, Dr. Ștefan Odobleja can be considered a forerunner of Artificial Intelligence.
5. "DIVERSITY AND UNITY IN CYBERNETICS", 1978 - Scientific communication at the IV International Congress of Cybernetics in Amsterdam - Netherlands (August 21-25, 1978), which was presented by Dr. Stelian Bajureanu - Dr. Stefan Odobleja is ill in bed, and obtains international recognition as a forerunner of cybernetics. B. H. Rudall of the University of Wales, who chaired the session, said: “Dr Odobleja's work was very well received. A great interest and appreciation was expressed towards Consonantal Psychology ”. The convention was dedicated to the celebration of Norbert Wiener. After the presentation of Odobleja's work, "40 years of cybernetics" were chanted, although "30 years of cybernetics" and Norbert Wiener, who did not receive the Nobel Prize, were also celebrated.