Grigore C. Moisil, Computer Pioneer Award and the father of Romanian Computer Science
BUCHAREST, Romania, 2018 January 10
Dr. Marin Vlada, University of Bucharest
Grigore C. Moisil (January 10, 1906  May 21, 1973)
MOTTO: "All what is correct thinking is either mathematics or feasible to be transposed in a mathematical model." Grigore C. Moisil
The father of Romanian Informatics and Computer Pioneer Award of Computer Society (IEEE  1996)
Romanian mathematician, Professor at the University of Bucharest – Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, member of the Romanian Academy, member of the Academy of Sciences in Bologna and of the International Institute of Philosophy
Grigore C. Moisil, 1996 Computer Pioneer Award
"For the development of polyvalent logic switching circuits, the Romanian School of Computing, and support of the first Romanian computers."
Grigore C. Moisil pioneered the application of mathematical logic to computer science. In the 1950s, Moisil developed a new structural theory of finite automata and proposed what he called "The trivalent Lukasziewiczian algebras applied to the logic of switching circuits," an important contribution to the development of computer science in those early years. Ref.: http://www.computer.org/ 
Grigore C. Moisil, 19591971 the founding of the Romanian Informatics
"The Informatics/Computer Science restores not only the unity between the pure and the applied mathematical sciences, the concrete technique and the abstract mathematics, but also that between the natural sciences, the human being and the society. It restores the concepts of the abstract and the formal and makes peace between arts and science not only in the scientist' conscience, but in their philosophy as well." Grigore C. Moisil
 In 1959 Gr. C. Moisil founded the specialization/section "Computing Machines" (later the Department of Informatics) at the Faculty of Mathematics at University of Bucharest
 In 1962 Gr. C. Moisil founded the Computing Center of the University of Bucharest (CCUB) at the Faculty of Mathematics.
 In 1968 CCUB, with Moisil's major efforts acquired an American computing system IBM 360/30 and was used to train many generations of computer scientists, contributing to the IT program in Romania.
 During 1970/1971, computer science departments (mathematical profile), computer and automation sections (engineering profile) and economic informatics (economics) sections were set up in Bucharest, Cluj, Iaşi and Timişoara.
Images:
 Left: acad. Grigore C. Moisil together with the students of "Computing Machines" at a demonstration in front of the CCUB analog computer from 1965 (explanations prof. N. Popoviciu, Source: prof. A. Atanasiu, http://fmi.unibuc.ro/revistadelogica/articole/No1Art73.pdf)
 Midle: Grigore C. Moisil in the IBM 360 computer room (in front of the computer) at CCUB (TVR archive)
 Right: Grigore C. Moisil together with collaborators in the IBM 360 computer room in the building on Ştefan Furtună str., where is the Computer Center of the University of Bucharest). From left to right: Maria Lovin, Constantin Popovici, Popoviciu Nicolae, Petre Preoteasa, Stelian Niculescu, acad. Grigore C. Moisil
"The greatest regret of my life is to haven't had any" Grigore C. Moisil
 Grigore C. Moisil was born in Tulcea, Romania, in 1906 and died in 1973. His life dedicated to mathematics and computer sciences, consecrated him as an outstanding scientist and professor. He created a school of thought with students and colleagues who continued his work, developing computer science and technology in Romania.
 He was a member of the Romanian Academy, of the Academy of Bologna, and of the International Institute of Philosophy. Moisil was a professor of mathematical logic and computer science at the University of Bucharest, and taught in various universities in Europe and America. His early contributions were in mathematics and later he devoted his scientific activity to mathematical logic and computer science. He pioneered the application of mathematical logic to computer science.
 In the 1950s, Prof. Moisil developed a new structural theory of finite automata and proposed what he called "the trivalent Lukaszewiczian algebra applied to the logic of switching circuits", an important contribution to the development of computer science in those early years. Some of his books were translated in several languages. At a time when cybernetics was thought of as "reactionary bourgeois science directed against working class" Prof. Moisil used his scientific authority to personally encourage the Romanian scientists to build the first computer, that appeared in 1957.
 In 1941, a position of professor at the University of Bucharest opened up, and Moisil applied for it. However, Gheorghe Vrânceanu, Dan Barbilian, and Miron Nicolescu also applied for the position, and Vrânceanu got it. Moisil approached the Ministry of Education, arguing that it would be a great opportunity for mathematics in Romania if all four could be appointed.
 As a result of his appeal, all four mathematicians were hired. Moisil moved to Bucharest, where he became a Professor in the School of Mathematics (later the School of Mathematics and Computer Science) at the University of Bucharest, on 30 December 1941. From 1946 to 1948, Moisil took a leave of absence, being named plenipotentiary envoy to Ankara. While in Turkey, he gave several series of mathematics lectures at Istanbul University and Istanbul Technical University.
 In 1959 Gr. C. Moisil founded the specialization/section "Computing Machines" (later the Department of Informatics) at the Faculty of Mathematics at University of Bucharest, and in 1962 founded the Computing Center of the University of Bucharest (CCUB) at the Faculty of Mathematics.
Main Work by Grigore C. Moisil
 In 1929 he defended his Ph.D. thesis, La mécanique analytique des systemes continus (Analytical mechanics of continuous systems), before a commission led by Gheorghe Ţiţeica, with Dimitrie Pompeiu and Anton Davidoglu as members. The thesis was published the same year by the GauthierVillars publishing house in Paris, and received favourable comments from Vito Volterra, Tullio LeviCivita, and Paul Lévy.
 Professor Moisil published papers on mechanics, mathematical analysis, geometry, algebra and mathematical logic. He developed a multidimensional extension of Pompeiu's areolar derivative, and studied monogenic functions of one hypercomplex variable with applications to mechanics.
 Moisil also introduced some manyvalued algebras, which he called Łukasiewicz algebras (now also named Łukasiewicz–Moisil algebras), and used them in logic and the study of automata theory. He created new methods to analyze finite automata, and had many contributions to the field of automata theory in algebra.
 Moisil had important contributions in the creation of the first Romanian computers. He played a fundamental role in the development of computer science in Romania, and in raising the first generations of Romanian computer scientists. In 1996, he was awarded by exception posthumously the Computer Pioneer Award by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society.
Main publications
 Logique modale, Disquisit. Math. Phys. 2 (1942), 3–98. MR0020524
 Introducere in algebră. I. Inele şi ideale [Introduction to algebra. I. Rings and ideals], Editura Academiei Republicii Popular Române, Bucharest, 1954. MR0069136
 Teoria algebrică a mecanismelor automate [Algebraic theory of automatic machines], Academia Republicii Populare Romane, Editura Tehnică, Bucharest, 1959. MR0120120
 Circuite cu tranzistori [Transistor Circuits], Editura Academiei Republicii Populare Romane, Bucharest, 1961–62. OCLC 15371418
 Théorie structurelle des automates finis, GauthierVillars, Paris, 1967. OCLC 9049760
 The algebraic theory of switching circuits, Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York, 1969. ISBN 0080101488
Professor Moisil famous quotations:
 "The most powerful explosive is not the toluene, neither the atomic bomb, but the human idea."
 "Science takes its revenge like a woman, not when you attack it, but when you neglect it."
 "Unlike the wine, science shouldn't be let to age."
 "What's a pessimist? An optimist well informed."
 "Nobody should be afraid of abstract things and very abstract things, especially in mathematics; mathematics, precisely because it's mathematics, is abstract. More abstract a thing is, it includes larger fields and so it is aplicable on more concrete situations."
 "I don't have a good opinion about children who follow only their parents advice. To have his own personality, the child  and this is valid for student and teacher, too  should part company with his parents and he should act as he wants."
 "I believe that one can have professional success only if he is a modest man with daring ideas. We mustn't be misled when we notice that "people who meddle" have success. This apparent success is the one which will bring after a while failure."
 "But of course that you need to have in your ideas a great daring and perseverance for the achievement of the purposes for which you aspire through work."
 "Mediocrity doesn't forgive the intelligent people for being superficial in appearance and profound in reality."

"The double historical role of foolishness:
1) The foolishness turns the revolution into evolution.
2) the foolishness allows the communications between two intelligence."
Books and articles on Moisil (Selection)
 M. Abad, L. Monteiro, On threevalued Moisil algebras, Logique et Analyse, 27, 1984, 407414
 L. Beznea, q valued Moisil algebras and dual categories (Romanian), Master Thesis, University of Bucarest, 1981
 Jonathan S. Golan, Gr. C. Moisil, Activitatea Centrului de Calcul al Universității din București, AMC 1314 (1970), 920, în J. S. Golan, Semirings and their Applications, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London, 1999
 J. J O' Connor, E. F Robertson, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, School of Mathematics and Statistics  University of St Andrews, Scotland, http://wwwhistory.mcs.standrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Moisil.html
 Ioan Dzitac, Florin Gheorghe Filip, MisuJan Manolescu, Fuzzy Logic Is Not Fuzzy: Worldrenowned Computer Scientist Lotfi A. Zadeh, In International Journal of Computers Communications & Control, vol. 12 no 6 (2017), http://univagora.ro/jour/index.php/ijccc/article/view/3111
 Oana Lucia N. DIMITRIU, "Academicianul Grigore C. Moisil, intemeietorul şcolii de matematicieni informaticieni din Romania", Biblioteca Academiei Române, Studii și comunicări, Comitetul Român pentru Istoria si Filosofia Stiintei si Tehnicii, Volumul VII / 2014, http://studii.crifst.ro/doc/2014/2014_4_06.pdf (pdf)
 George Georgescu, Afrodita Iorgulescu, Sergiu Rudeanu, Grigore C. Moisil (1906  1973) and his School in Algebraic Logic, In International Journal of Computers Communications & Control, vol. 1 no 1 (2016), http://univagora.ro/jour/index.php/ijccc/article/view/2276

G. Georgescu, I. Leuștean, Probabilities on ŁukasiewiczMoisil algebras, International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, 1998, 18, No.34, 201215.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0888613X(98)000061  A. Iorgulescu, Functors between categories of threevalued ŁukasiewiczMoisil algebras, Discrete Math., 49, 1984, 121131., http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0012365X(84)901092
 Solomon Marcus, "Grigore C. Moisil și începuturile informaticii romanesti", Lucrările Sesiunii Știinţifice a Centrului de Calcul al Universităţii din București (1987), 2021 februarie 1987, pp. 2326
 Solomon Marcus, Grigore C. Moisil: A Life Becoming a Myth, In International Journal of Computers Communications & Control, vol. 1 no 1 (2016), http://univagora.ro/jour/index.php/ijccc/article/view/2275
 Grigore C. Moisil, "Activitatea Centrului de Calcul al Universității din București", în volumul "Grigore C. Moisil și continuatorii săi" (2007), Ed. Academiei Române, pp. 133155
 Viorica Moisil, "Once upon a time... Grigore Moisil" (A fost odată... Grigore Moisil), Bucharest: Curtea Veche, 2002. ISBN 9738356091

Ioana Moisil, The wonderful adventures of the mathematician in logicland: From LukasiewiczMoisil logic to computers, Computers Communications and Control (ICCCC) (2016), 2016 6th International Conference on, 19, DOI: 10.1109/ICCCC.2016.7496730,
https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCCC.2016.7496730  Gheorghe Păun, Moisil 110, In revista Curtea de la Arges, anul VII, Nr. 3 (64), martie 2016, http://www.curteadelaarges.ro/arhiva/VII_3_64/VII_3_64.pdf
 Sergiu Rudeanu, On ŁukasiewiczMoisil algebras of fuzzy sets, Studia Logica, 52, 1993, 95111, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01053066
 Sergiu Rudeanu, Afrodita Iorgulescu, George Georgescu and Cătălin Ioniţă, "G. C. Moisil memorial issue", MultipleValued Logic 6 (2001), no. 12. Gordon and Breach, Yverdon, 2001. MR1817431
 E. Radu, L'oeuvre de Gr. C. Moisil en logique mathématique, I., II., Rev. Roumaine Math. Pures Appl., 23, 1978, 463477, 605610
 W. Suchon, On defining Moisil's functors in nvalued Łukasiewicz propositional logic, Polish Acad. Sci. Inst. Philos. Sociol. Bull. Sect. Logic, 2, 1973, 195196.
 Teodorescu H.N.L. (2011); On the meaning of approximate reasoning: An unassuming subsidiary to Lotfi Zadeh's paper dedicated to the memory of Grigore Moisil, International Journal of Computers Communications & Control, 6(3), 577580, 2011, https://doi.org/10.15837/ijccc.2011.3.2136
 Dragoș Vaida, Informatica în România  primii ani, REVISTA DE POLITICA ŞTIINŢEI ŞI SCIENTOMETRIE – SERIE NOUĂ, Vol.4, Nr. 1/2015, pag. 2933, http://rpss.inoe.ro/articles/informaticainromaniaprimiiani
 Dragoș Vaida, Gr. C. Moisil, un mod de a privi matematica și cultura, În revista Curtea de la Argeș, anul VIII, nr. 10(83), oct. 2017, http://www.curteadelaarges.ro/arhiva/VIII_10_83/VIII_10_83.pdf
 Ion Văduva, "Douăzeci și cinci de ani de activitate a Centrului de Calcul al Universității din București", Lucrările Sesiunii Știinţifice a Centrului de Calcul al Universităţii din Bucurșţti (1987), 2021 februarie 1987, pp.614
 Ion Văduva, "Centrul de Calcul al Universității din București, creație a lui Grigore C. Moisil", în volumul postum "Grigore C. Moisil și continuatorii săi, Ed. Academiei Române” (2007), pp. 515519
 Ion Văduva, Centrul de Calcul al Universităţii din Bucureşti (CCUB), pionierat în Informatica din România, CNIV România, 29 SEPTEMBRIE 2014  http://www.c3.cniv.ro/?q=2014/vaduvaccub

Ion Văduva, Computing Center of the University of Bucharest, an Important Step in the History of Computer Science in Romania(2014), In Proceedings of International Conference on Virtual Learning, ICVL 2014,
https://www.scribd.com/doc/243333879/ProceedingsofICVL2014ISSN1844...  Ion Văduva, History of Computer Science in Romania by Prof. Ion Văduva, In Proceedings of International Conference on Virtual Learning, ICVL 2014, http://www.c3.icvl.eu/2014/vaduvaccub
 Marin Vlada, Adrian Adăscăliţei, History of Informatics. From recursivity to the Turing universal machine and Horn clauses (2017), In Proceedings of International Conference on Virtual Learning, ICVL 2017, http://c3.icvl.eu/papers2017/icvl/documente/pdf/section1/section1_paper1...
 Marin Vlada, Adrian Adăscăliţei, ROMANIAN EXPERIENCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF COURSES. SOCIETY DEVELOPMENT: VISION ON LEARNING  GRIGORE C. MOISIL, 110 YEARS AFTER BIRTH, In the 12th International Scientific Conference on eLearning and Software for Education (eLSE) Location: Bucharest, ROMANIA Date: APR 2122, 2016, ELEARNING VISION 2020!, VOL III Book Series: eLearning and Software for Education Pages: 578585, Bucharest, Advanced Distributed Learning Department, "Carol I" National Defense University, (ISSN: 2066  026X print 2066  8821 online), pp. 360367, 2016, www.elseconference.eu , http://adl.unap.ro

Marin Vlada, Grigore C. Moisil – restituiri (2016), http://mvlada.blogspot.ro/2016/01/grigorecmoisilrestituiri.html
Marin Vlada, 110 ani de la nașterea acad. Grigore C. Moisil, întemeietorul Informaticii din România – Restituiri (2016), http://c3.cniv.ro/?q=2016/moisil110ani  Marin Vlada, Discipolii acad. Grigore C. Moisil și pionieri ai informaticii românești (2016), CNIV 2016, http://c3.icvl.eu/papers2016/cniv/documente/pdf/sectiuneaA/sectiuneaA_lu...
 Marin Vlada, Discipolii acad. Gr. C. Moisil și pionieri ai informaticii românești (2016), http://mvlada.blogspot.ro/2016/10/discipoliiacadgrcmoisilsipionier...
 Marin Vlada, 60 de ani de la apariția Informaticii la Universitatea din Bucureşti (2015), http://mvlada.blogspot.ro/2015/04/60deanidelaaparitiainformaticii....

Marin Vlada, Informatica la Universitatea din Bucureşti: 1960197420042014 , (2014), http://c3.cniv.ro/?q=2014/infoub,
http://mvlada.blogspot.ro/2014/04/informaticalauniversitateadin.html 
Lotfi A. Zadeh, Fuzzy Sets, Inform. And Control, 8, 1965, 338353,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S00199958(65)90241X  Lotfi A. Zadeh (1975), Fuzzy Logic and Approximate Reasoning (In Memory of Grigore Moisil), Synthese, 30, 407428, 1975, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00485052
RECENT ARTICLES: Ioana Moisil, The Wonderful Adventures of the Mathematician in LogicLand: From LukasiewiczMoisil Logic to Computers, ICCCC 2016, http://dzitac.ro/files/icccc/PreprintProcICCCC2016.pdf
Ref.: Ioan Dzitac, Florin Gheorghe Filip, MisuJan Manolescu, Fuzzy Logic Is Not Fuzzy: Worldrenowned Computer Scientist Lotfi A. Zadeh, In International Journal of Computers Communications & Control, vol. 12 no 6 (2017), http://univagora.ro/jour/index.php/ijccc/article/view/3111
“In 1965 Lotfi A. Zadeh published "Fuzzy Sets", his pioneering and controversial paper, that now reaches almost 100,000 citations. All Zadeh’s papers were cited over 185,000 times. Starting from the ideas presented in that paper, Zadeh founded later the Fuzzy Logic theory, that proved to have useful applications, from consumer to industrial intelligent products. We are presenting general aspects of Zadeh’s contributions to the development of Soft Computing(SC) and Artificial Intelligence(AI), and also his important and early influence in the world and in Romania. Several early contributions in fuzzy sets theory were published by Romanian scientists, such as: Grigore C. Moisil (1968), Constantin V. Negoita & Dan A. Ralescu (1974), Dan Butnariu (1978). In this review we refer the papers published in "From Natural Language to Soft Computing: New Paradigms in Artificial Intelligence" (2008, Eds.: L.A. Zadeh, D. Tufis, F.G. Filip, I. Dzitac), and also from the two special issues (SI) of the International Journal of Computers Communications & Control (IJCCC, founded in 2006 by I. Dzitac, F.G. Filip & M.J. Manolescu; L.A. Zadeh joined in 2008 to editorial board). In these two SI, dedicated to the 90th birthday of Lotfi A. Zadeh (2011), and to the 50th anniversary of "Fuzzy Sets" (2015), were published some papers authored by scientists from Algeria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, China, Hungary, Greece, Germany, Japan, Lithuania, Mexico, Pakistan, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Spain, Taiwan, UK and USA.”